An Expert Guide to Spanish Allophones and Phonemes (2023)

An Expert Guide to Spanish Allophones and Phonemes (1)

June 3, 2021 by Olga Put Spanish Grammar 0 comments

Have you ever confused haber (to have) with a ver (Let’s see)? Or you don’t understand why you hear /’ instead of /’ when people say “Let’s go!” in Spanish?

And why does your attempt to say el lado (side) in Spanish sound so different from when your native Spanish friend pronounces it?

Allophones and phonemes!

What are these? Keep reading to learn the ins and outs of these power phonetic distinctions.

In fact, allophones and phonemes hold the secret key to correct pronunciation in Spanish.

In this blog post, I use the International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA to represent sounds. It contains sounds present in every language of the world. For quick access to the phonetic symbols, download your free PDF with a helpful chart!

An Expert Guide to Spanish Allophones and Phonemes (2)

Download our Free PDF of IPA Spanish Phonemes and Allophones

Just type in your name and email and we will immediately send the PDF to your inbox!

(Video) Improve your pronunciation of Spanish b, d, g

What Are Phonemes?

Sounds allow us to communicate verbally. Each language has a definite set of sounds that are types of building blocks that are meaningless when pronounced separately. However, when combined together, they acquire meaning.

Let’s see some examples:

S-o-p-a (soup)

S-a-p-o (toad)

P-a-s-o (step)

All of the above words are composed of the same four sounds. These sounds do not have any meaning themselves but they are commutable (or able to be interchanged).

If we change one for another or put them in a different order, we get a new word.

In linguistics, these constructive segments are called “phonemes.”

Usage of Phonemes

The number of phonemes varies among languages, comprising of around 24-25 in total. As for Spanish, it has five vowel phonemes and nineteen consonant phonemes, totalling 14 phonemes.

Spanish is also on the lower end of the number of phonemes. For comparison, here are the number of phonemes in some languages:

  • American English – 32
  • British English – 36
  • French – 39
  • German – 45
  • Lithuanian – 59
  • Japanese – 22
  • Hawaiian – 18

Surprisingly, fewer phonemes does not necessarily mean easier phonetics. These languages usually create contrasts of meaning in a different way. For example, Chinese uses tones, while other languages use word stress.

Spanish is one such language that uses word stress to distinguish similar words from one another. If you shift the word stress (or emphasis) from the first syllable of the word paso (PAH-soh) to the last syllable, you get pasó (pah-SOH), which is the past form of pasar.

Spanish Sounds and Symbols

In an ideal world, one specific letter would correspond with one specific phoneme, to make language learning more effecient. Luckily, Spanish is quite close to this linguistic utopia, leading scholars to boast about “Spanish phonemic orthography,” which is a fancy way of saying that words are pronounced almost exactly as they’re written. In fact, you rarely need to use a dictionary to check the pronunciation of a written Spanish word after you’ve learned the phonetics.

Of all the letters, it’s only the letter x that has two phonemic representations.

(Video) Study plan for learning Spanish pronunciation

For example, words Mexico (me.’xi.ko) and taxi (’ are pronounced differently.

Learn more: Spanish Phonetic Transcription Translator and Pronunciation Dictionary

However, in the other direction, from sound to letter, it’s easier to get confused. The same phonemes can be written down in two or more different ways and it’s a problem even for Spanish native speakers.

For example the phoneme /k/ can be represented in various ways:

  • letter c as in casa – /’
  • combination qu as in queso – /’
  • letter k as in kiosko – /’kios.ko/
An Expert Guide to Spanish Allophones and Phonemes (3)

The sound /x/ like in the English word “Loch” can also be written down in four different ways:

  • letter j as in jaguar /xa.ˈɣwaɾ/
  • combination ge as in general /xe.nɛ.ˈɾal/
  • combination gi as in gigante /xi.ˈɣãn̪.te/

A similar thing happens for letters v and b in Spanish, which have the same phoneme /b/:

  • vaso /’
  • beso /’
  • conversa /kõm.ˈbɛɾ.sa/
  • combate /kõm.ˈba.te/

Spanish Letters: y and ll

In most Spanish-speaking areas the letters y and ll are represented with the same phoneme /ˈɟʝ/. Sometimes you can also see it written as /ʝ/ or /’J/.

In the past, however, this orthographic distinction was also a phonemic one. Today, in some places of Spain, in the Andean parts of Latin America, and Paraguay the double ll is pronounced as “li” in “million” and is represented with a phoneme /ʎ/.

Nevertheless, the great majority of Spanish speakers pronounce these two letters the same way.

Most Spanish-speaking areasParts of Spain, the Andean region, Paraguay
yeso /ˈɟʝ/ (plaster)yeso /ˈɟʝ/
llama /ˈɟʝ (flame)llama /ˈʎ

Spanish Letters: s, z, and c

In Latin America, on the Canary Islands and in some parts of Andalusia, there is no phonemic contrast between the letters s, z, and the letter c in combinations of ce, ci—they all share the /s/ phoneme.

In contrast, Peninsular Spain distinguishes s (pronounced /s/) from z and c (pronounced /θ/, similar to the “th” sound in the English word “thanks”).

Lat. Am. / Can. Islands / AndalucíaPeninsular Spain
Casa /’ /’
Caza /’ /’ka.θa/
Centro /ˈsɛ̃n̪.tɾo/Centro /ˈθɛ̃n̪.tɾo/
Circo /’sir.ko/Circo /’θir.ko/
Zapato /’ /’θ

Allophones Are Phonemes in Context

The pronunciation of the same phoneme can vary depending on its position in a word—and these are called allophones.

From this point, I use square brackets [] to distinguish the transcription of allophones from the transcriptions of phonemes in slashes //.

Spanish Allphones: [d] and [ð]

For example, the Spanish phoneme /d/ is pronounced as a stop [d] at the beginning of the word or after n or l, as in doña (ˈdo.ɲa) or andar (ãn̪.ˈdaɾ).

(Video) How to Pronounce the Sounds of the Spanish D 🇲🇽 🇪🇸

However, when it appears in other places, like in the word hada (ˈa.ða) where the /d/ is in between vowels, it’s pronounced [ð]—similar to the voiced “th” sound in English words “they” and “gather.”

Many native Spanish speakers are not aware that they pronounce the /d/ phoneme in distinct ways. As a non-native speaker, if you were to pronounce the word candado (kan.dá.ðo) as (kan.dá.do), you would be understood but native listeners would detect a faint accent.

Spanish Allophones: [b] and [β]

The Spanish phoneme /b/ can be pronounced as [b] or [β], depending on its position in the word. Similarly as in the [d] and [ð] case, you pronounce /b/ as [b] if the word that starts with the letter b is spoken in isolation or it is in a group of words but pronounced after a pause, or after a nasal consonant /m, n). However, between two vowels /b/ is always a [β].

  • bandera [‘]
  • ambos [‘am.bos]
  • envía [‘em.bía]
  • sabe [‘sa.βe]
  • lava [l’a.βa]
An Expert Guide to Spanish Allophones and Phonemes (4)

Spanish Allophones: [g] and [γ]

The Spanish phoneme /g/ can be pronounced as [g] or [γ] also depending on its position in the word. At the beginning of a word spoken in isolation, pronounced after a pause, or after a nasal consonant, you’ll hear and pronounce a [g] and between two vowels, it is always a [γ]:

  • gato [‘]
  • tengo [‘ten.go]
  • lago [l’a.γo]

The Key to Avoiding Pronunciation Mistakes

Not knowing the allophonic rules of how phonemes vary in pronunciation depending on their location in a word leads to consistent pronunciation mistakes.

If you’re lucky to have a competent teacher who can explain and correct these typical mistakes early on in your studies, you won’t have too many problems. However, without this kind of detailed pronunciation instruction, you must learn it on your own through articles like this one!

Not knowing these phonetic and orthographic rules tends to lead to spelling mistakes or even communication chaos. For example, the sound [β] doesn’t exist in English and needs to be taught and trained.

Check this article about confusing consonants in Spanish if you are curious to know more!

If you’re looking for a more basic explanation of today’s topic, have a look at a Complete Spanish Pronunciation Guide for Beginners.

Practice Your Spanish in Real Time!

If you’re ready to sound like a native speaker, carve out a dedicated space in your schedule to practice Spanish phonemes and allophones, as you train your ear to distinguish them and train your tongue to pronounce them correctly in a spontaneous way.

It’s not easy to do it by yourself! Empower yourself to sign up for a free class and see how easy and enjoyable it is to practice phonemes and allophones with a native, Spanish-speaking teacher at Homeschool Spanish Academy.

All our teachers from Guatemala speak English and they’re aware of specific challenges that Spanish pronunciation may present for you. They can listen to your mistakes, explain, correct, and teach you the right sounds. Sign up today and give it a try!

Ready to learn more Spanish grammar? Check these out!

  • From Singular to Plural: How To Make Spanish Sentences Plural
  • Spanish Grammar Exercises for Beginners with Answer Keys
  • 5 Essential Conjugation Charts for Improving Your Grammar Skills
  • The Top 5 Spanish Grammar Rules You Can’t Afford to Ignore
  • Connecting the Dots: Why Spanish Conjunctions Are Essential for Fluency
  • Llegar vs Llevar in Spanish: What’s the Difference?
  • 10 Essential Ways to Use “Que” in Spanish
  • Solo vs Solamente: What’s the Difference?
  • Author
  • Recent Posts

Olga Put

Freelance Writer at Homeschool Spanish Academy

I'm a Spanish philologist, teacher, and freelance writer with a Master's degree in Humanities from Madrid. I speak Polish, Spanish, and English fluently, and want to get better in Portuguese and German. A lover of literature, and Mexican spicy cuisine, I've lived in Poland, Spain, and Mexico and I'm currently living and teaching in Madeira, Portugal.

Latest posts by Olga Put (see all)

  • The Ultimate Spanish Vocabulary Guide for World Oceans Day - May 31, 2023
  • Preparing Your Child for Success: 5 Essential Tips for Parents - May 25, 2023
  • Hispanic Mom Wisdom: Quotes and Phrases to Live By - May 15, 2023
(Video) Spanish Vowels Part I: Discussion, [a], [e]

grammar grammar PDF spanish grammar


(Video) How to read the International Phonetic Alphabet | Complete Beginners Guide


How many allophones are there in Spanish? ›

As for Spanish, it has five vowel phonemes and nineteen consonant phonemes, totalling 14 phonemes.

What are allophones examples in Spanish? ›

Before vowelAfter vowel
[j][tjera] tierra 'land'[bojna] boina 'beret'
[w][fweɣo] fuego 'fire'[ewɾopa] Europa 'Europe'
2 more rows

What are the 44 phonemes? ›

In English, there are 44 phonemes, or word sounds that make up the language. They're divided into 19 consonants, 7 digraphs, 5 'r-controlled' sounds, 5 long vowels, 5 short vowels, 2 'oo' sounds, 2 diphthongs.

Are S and Z different phonemes in Spanish? ›

“s” and “z” in English are two different phonemes. However, in Spanish, both are pronounced as “s” depending on dialect. For example, zapato sounds like “sapato” just as sopa sounds like “sopa.”

What are allophones giving 3 examples? ›

In English the t sounds in the words “hit,” “tip,” and “little” are allophones; phonemically they are considered to be the same sound although they are different phonetically in terms of aspiration, voicing, and point of articulation.

What is the Ʃ in Spanish? ›

/ʃ/ is a marginal phoneme that occurs only in loanwords or certain dialects; many speakers have difficulty with this sound, tending to replace it with /tʃ/ or /s/.

What is the difference between phonemes and allophones? ›

A phoneme is a set of allophones or individual non-contrastive speech segments. Allophones are sounds, whilst a phoneme is a set of such sounds. Allophones are usually relatively similar sounds which are in mutually exclusive or complementary distribution (C.D.).

What are the two types of allophones? ›

Allophones are classified into two groups, complementary and free-variant allophones, on the basis of whether they appear in complementary distribution or the speakers have freedom to choose the allophone that they will use.

What is an example of allophones of a phoneme? ›

If two sounds DO NOT CONTRAST in a particular language (e.g. light [l] and dark [ɫ] in English)… (a) Te sounds are allophones of a single phoneme in that language. Example: [l] and [ɫ] are allophones of the English phoneme /L/.

Does Spanish have allophones? ›

The sounds [d] and [ð] are two allophones of the phoneme /d/ in Spanish which are found in COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION: one allophone, [d], occurs in certain environments (after pause, /n/ and /l/) and the other in all other phonological contexts (in the most widespread standard pronunciation).

How many allophones are there? ›

Complementary and free-variant allophones and assimilation

There are two types of allophones, based on whether a phoneme must be pronounced using a specific allophone in a specific situation or whether the speaker has the unconscious freedom to choose the allophone that is used.

How many types of allophones are there? ›

Allophones are classified into two groups, complementary and free-variant allophones, on the basis of whether they appear in complementary distribution or the speakers have freedom to choose the allophone that they will use.

Does Spanish have 22 phonemes? ›

Spanish has 22 phonemes represented by 27 symbols, compared to English's 44 phonemes and 26 symbols. The variations common in African American English are predictable and governed by rules.


1. S and Z for Spanish Speakers
(Aze Linguistics)
2. [w] - Spanish Phonology (Phonetics): Learn Spanish Online
3. Introduction to Finnish phonology
4. Analyzing student Spanish pronunciation: Kimberly
(Ten Minute Spanish)
5. 10 Where Do Phonemes Come from A View from the Bottom
6. Building Phonological Awareness with Raphael Turrigiano | polýMATHY pódCAST #10


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Kieth Sipes

Last Updated: 24/10/2023

Views: 5693

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (47 voted)

Reviews: 86% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Kieth Sipes

Birthday: 2001-04-14

Address: Suite 492 62479 Champlin Loop, South Catrice, MS 57271

Phone: +9663362133320

Job: District Sales Analyst

Hobby: Digital arts, Dance, Ghost hunting, Worldbuilding, Kayaking, Table tennis, 3D printing

Introduction: My name is Kieth Sipes, I am a zany, rich, courageous, powerful, faithful, jolly, excited person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.